Saturday, July 27, 2013

Mg Soleil Project-1

I am rearranging “Mg Soleil Project”, already described on my site.  The writing, based mainly on the materials gathered though the web, is an intermediate completion work before the final writing will be completed.  The detailed description will be given in the order described in “Table of Contents”, located at the end of this blog. 

I believe that the “Mg Soleil Project” is a worthwhile project which will affect the national energy policy in some way.  This causes me to continuously write the project. 

We are now confronting with resource and environmental issues.  To cope with the issues, there is proposed a "sustainable society" in which we manage the harvesting of energy and the consuming of the same on condition that the sustainability of the society is secured.  It is believed that the Mg Soleil Project can efficiently achieve the sustainable society. 

The project has been proposed and executed by Prof. Kohama (Tohoku University) et al. Specifically, “Mg Soleil Project” provides mainly electric energy and light metal materials, which are necessary for the society, while satisfying the eco-friendliness.  Solar energy and magnesium (Mg) are used for the energy sources.  The used magnesium is processed (smelted) to be used again.  Magnesium is cyclically utilized with the aid of the solar energy.  This results in successful formation of the sustainable society.

The solar energy or solar source is limitless in amount and magnesium is most abundant on the earth.  Those resources are cheap, as a matter of course.  Six types of primary energies available on the earth were calculatively compared in amount. The result is that solar energy is 64% or more of the total amount of those primary energies. The solar energy is the limitless source and eternally available on the earth. Magnesium is abundant in the Earth's crust and seawater (It is ranked in the 8th place in Clarke number).
The following three technologies are needed for realizing the sustainable society by the Mg Soleil Project.
1) Mg smelting technology using solar energy:Component technologies have almost completed.  A prototype implemented by the technology operated as intended in the lab.
2) Mg electricity generation technology: Under development.  The MgFC has been developed in such a level as to be operable as an emergency-use battery.
3) Technology to make magnesium flame-retardant: The research and development have already been completed.

A famous professor advocates that such materials as are abundant readily available at near locations and cheap should be used for battery development.  He is Prof. Donald R. Sadoway of MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology), who is widely recognized as a leading battery and energy storage expert. He engages in developing grid-scale liquid metal battery (Mg and Sb electrodes, and a molten salt electrolyte, mega-watts class, for power levelling) in cooperation with his group (Ambri Inc).

The magnesium fuel cell (MgFC) has a mass energy density of 2.6 kWh/kg. The figure is 10 times larger than that of the lithium battery. MgFC is capable of powering the vehicle 500 km with 20 kg magnesium. Where MgFCs are installed at homes and small-scale enterprises, power sources are arranged in a distributed power system way.  The MgFCs are scalable in construction and expandable in sale as required.  Prof. Kohama says, "The MgFC powered by the magnesium smelted by solar energy can sufficiently supply the total energy nationally consumed. He made a rough estimate of the building cost of a 1,000,000 kW magnesium plant at about 1000 Oku-Yen. Its details consist of about 500 Oku-Yen (magnesium smelting plant) and about 500 Oku-Yen (MgFC plant). 1000 Oku-Yen is lower than the half of the nuclear power plant.

Magnesium can store electricity.  Magnesium to be utilized is produced by smelting magnesium ore (used magnesium) with the aide of solar energy.  The smelted magnesium functions as a solar-energy carrier.  When viewing this from electrical standpoint, the smelted magnesium stores the solar energy in the form of free electrons.  The free electrons flow in the form of current in the circuitry including the MgFC.  It is a common that it is impossible to store electricity. The fact completely denies the opinion commonly accepted. From this, it is seen that the magnesium can safely store, transport and utilize electricity.  It is noted that this is an innovative utilization of energy.

Of the magnesium demand items, the die casting for automobile parts sharply increases.  The tendency is worldwide and will be intensified more and more.  This is clear from the facts that the technologies to apply magnesium into products, for example, automobile parts will be additively developed and the automobile market is giant.  Magnesium is a future metal material.  The present state on magnesium is the perfect import dependence in Japan.  World economic affairs and the will of the manufacturing countries greatly affect the magnesium supply and price in Japan.  Some measure must be taken for the present state.  It is a strong desire that magnesium will be produced while being led by or mainly by Japan. 

The solar energy density in the desert is significantly high. It is about 3kW/, about 3 times higher than that in Japan. The quantity of solar energy is about 7.5 times or more than that in Japan. The area of about 70 km2 can produce an amount of energy enough to satisfy the total energy consumed in Japan. Incidentally, the best location in the world is somewhere in the sun-belt region of and near the equator. The best places are the deserts having seaside areas in the zone.  Competitive efforts to obtain the right of using specific desert areas have already been done in secret. This is readily seen from the ongoing DESERTEC project.

Mg Soleil Project
Table of Contents
I.         Introduction
1.1      Solar energy and Magnesium
1.2      Magnesium Smelting
1.3      Magnesium
1.4      Magnesium Fuel Cell (MgFC)
II.       Mg Soleil Project
2.1      Magnesium Recycling Society
2.2      Economic Effects
III.     Magnesium
3.1      Excellent Properties of Magnesium
3.2      Magnesium Market and its Trends
  3.2.1   World Market
  3.2.2   Japanese Market
3.3      Issues and Problems
IV.      Magnesium Smelting
4.1      Kohama Smelting
4.2      Solar Furnace for Magnesium Smelting Used in Experiment
           (Fig. 2)
V.        Magnesium Fuel Cell Technology
5.1      Self-Discharging
5.2      Kohama MgFC technology
5.3      Present Status of MgFC
5.4      Resistive to Disaster
5.5      Major Advantages of MgFC
VI. AeroTrain

マグネシウム・太陽光Project (Mg Soleil Project)
Mg Soleil Projectについて再度まとめています。中間的なまとめとして書きます。Webで集めた資料をもとに書いています。詳細については、徐々に書いて行きます。書く順序は”Table of Contents” (文末)に従います。
資源、環境などの問題、これらに対処するものとして「持続可能な社会」が提示されています。社会の持続を前提に、環境を配慮しながら、エネルギーの取得とその消費を管理する。Mg Soleil Projectは持続可能な社会をきわめて効果的に実現できます。
このprojectProf. Kohama (Tohoku University) et al. によって提案されています。環境親和を前提とし、必要とする電気エネルギー等、そして軽金属材料を社会に提供します。エネルギー源として太陽光エネルギーとマグネシウム(Mg)を用います。使用したマグネシウムは再度利用。太陽光エネルギーの助けを得てマグネシウムを循環的に利用する。マグネシウム循環社会が作られます。
1) Mg
の精錬技術 (太陽熱を利用):要素技術はほぼ完成。そのprototypeは意図した通うりに作動、成功、labで。
2) マグネシウム燃料電池(MgFC):開発途上。緊急用電源としては実用域に達している。
3) マグネシウムの難燃化:この技術はすでに完成。
エネルギー発電・蓄電装置には、入手が容易で廉価な材料を使うべきと唱える学者が他にもおります。MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology)Prof. Donald R. Sadowayです。氏は電池、エネルギー貯蔵分野の世界的な権威です。現在、grid-scale liquid metal battery (Mg and Sb electrodes, and a molten salt electrolyteMegawattsクラスの電池、受電電力の平準化等用)を開発しています (Ambri Inc)。
MgFC の理論エネルギー貯蔵量 2.6Ah/g リチウムイオン電池の10倍以上。車に適用した場合、重量20kgで500km の走行が可能。各家庭、小規模事業所に設置すれば電源の分散化ができる。MgFCscalableであり、用途に合わせて規模を拡大可能。日本国内の全必要エネルギーをマグネシウム燃料電池で賄えます。Prof. Kohamaは原子力・化石燃料からマグネシウム燃料へのエネルギーシフトを早急に行うべきとしています。 100kW級マグネシウムプラントの建設費は約1000億円。 内訳は1)約500億円 = Mg 精錬プラント 2) 500億円 = Mg 燃料電池プラント。 原発の半分以下。
砂漠での太陽光のエネルギー密度は非常に高く、日本の3倍(約3kW/㎡、日射量は約7.5倍。 日本の全消費エネルギーを約702の面積で賄えます。最適地は赤道付近のサンベルト地帯にあり、現在はAustralia の北部を想定しています。砂漠の争奪戦は水面下ですでに始まっています(Pro. Kohama)。DESERTEC プロジェクトを見ればわかります。

Mg Soleil Project
Table of Contents
I. Introduction
1.1. 太陽光エネルギーとマグネシウム
1.2. マグネシウム精錬と太陽光エネルギー
1.3 マグネシウム
1.4 マグネシウム燃料電池

II. Mg Soleil Project
2.1 マグネシウム循環社会
2.2 Mg 循環社会の効果

III. マグネシウム
3.2.1 世界の市場
3.2.2 日本の市場
3.3 課題など

IV マグネシウム精錬
4.1 Kohama精錬
4.2 実験に使用したマグネシウム精錬用太陽炉設備(Fig. 2)

V. マグネシウム燃料電池 (MgFC)
5.1 自己放電
5.3 小濱MgFC technology
5.4 小濱MgFC technologyの現状
5.5 MgFCは災害に強い
5.6 MgFC の主な利点

VI. AeroTrain




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